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Post Info TOPIC: German colonial arms stocks Africa August 1914


Corporal

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German colonial arms stocks Africa August 1914
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Help !

Iam trying to establish what arms the Germans had in place Africa August 1914. The British War Office Handbook of the German Army 1914 gives a good starting place. But there is little else & much of this either vague or contradictory. I have 'I think' established the following. But there are gaping holes & would welcome any help improving my understanding of this area. Notably :-

1) Is what I state true ? - you may well know better.  

2) As well as numbers I have little or no knowledge of many of the artillery pieces mentioned - seeking at least the usual minimum = weight.shell x range & in the case of the 37mm. revolver RPM.

South East A frica -      40 - 50 x 77mm. Fieldguns. M96 ?                 

                                    12 x 75mm. Mountain guns M08 529kg. 5.3kg.x 5750m.

                                    30 x 'others'

                                    Machine guns x ?

                                    ? x Rifles & type ?

East Africa                   6 x 60mm. Mountain guns - naval landing guns ?

                                   12 x 47 & 37mm. guns -  which,both,revolver ?

                                   20 x 'others' - at least 2 x old fieldguns (M73 ?) used Tanga 1914.

                                   38 x Machine guns

                                    ? x rifles -  they were in the process of changing from M71 to M98 Mausers.

                                             + Naval guns (as mounted afloat) Konigsberg = 10 x 105mm. 1750kg. 17.4kg.x10800m.

                                                                                                                          2 x 88mm. 850kg. 9.8kg.x 8000m. - dismounted. To arm auxilliaries.

                                                                                                                          8 x 37mm. QF. 

                                                                                                                           4 x Machine guns

                                                                                                                          120 x Rifles  est. as this the standard for German overseas cruisers. Though no

                                                                                                                                     2 x 60mm. landing guns ? - which were also standard

                                                                                                    Mowe = 3 x 37mm.Revolvers

                                                                                                                 4 x Machine Guns

                                                                                                                 ? x Rifles - est. 30 - the German navy providing roughly 1 rifle per 3 crew.

Togoland                       No Artillery or Machine guns - 4 x Machine guns captured 1914 !

                                     ? x Rifles

Cameroon                     4 x 90mm. Field guns

                                     2 x 60mm. guns

                                     3 x 30mm (?) guns.

                                     17 x Machine guns - this beleiving to be a considerable under estimate.

                                      ? x Rifles

                                                   +Naval guns = Hertzogin Elizabeth - Governor's yacht - reported as mounting 10  small QF guns.       

                                                                           Soden - stern paddlesteamer river gunboat - armament N/K.

 

 

 

 



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General

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Phil,
Here is a list of artillery from an article in the South African Military History Society's Journal:
GERMAN GUNS OF WORLD WAR I IN SOUTH AFRICA

Major Darrell D. Hall
Guns in South Africa, 1899-1902 and Field Artillery of the British Army, 1860-1960, by the same author, appeared in this Journal, volume 2, numbers 1 to 6.

There are many German guns of World War I in the museums, and beside the war memorials, of South and South West Africa. Not only do they represent many of the types encountered by South African troops during that war; they also illustrate design developments in artillery at the end of the 19th Century, and early 20th Century.

The Germans introduced rifled breech-loading artillery in the l860s. After the Franco-Prussian War came Material C/73. This was in two versions the light 7,85 cm equipment for horse artillery, and the heavy 8,8 cm equipment for field artillery. These were normally described as 8 cm and 9 cm respectively.

Having two separate guns for horse and field artillery caused problems in the field, especially in connection with ammunition supply. When, in 1888, improvements in material made a lighter gun possible, the larger 9 cm calibre was adopted for both horse and field; this was the C/73/88. Then came the C/73/91 the same gun but with an improved barrel of nickel steel.

This was followed by the 7,7 cm C/96. The C prefix was not always used; this and later guns becoming Model 96 etc. This gun incorporated several improvements, notably in the breech mechanism, and a traversing system was included for the first time.

At about this time, a light field howitzer, the 10,5 cm Model 98, was adopted. The Germans had not been keen to introduce a new type of equipment, hoping that they would be able to get by on field guns alone. Developments in other European armies and unsuccessful experiments with field artillery ammunition forced them to take this step.

In the early years of the 20th Century, the Germans discovered that their two major rivals, Britain and France, had left them behind in gun design. France had developed a superior field gun. But it must have been infuriating for the Germans to discover that Britain had bought a large number of guns from Ehrhardt, a German manufacturer, as a stopgap pending the production of their new 13 and 18 pounder guns. The Ehrhardt gun, with its long recoil, was better than the gun in use with the German army at the time the 7,7 cm C/96. This gun was mounted on a rigid carriage and had a very rudimentary recoil system.

The Germans, therefore, rapidly updated their field artillery and produced the new 7,7 cm Field Gun Model 96 n.A. (neuer Art new pattern). The light field howitzer, the 10,5 cm Model 98, was also on a rigid carriage, so this was improved too, and a recoil system incorporated. It became the Model 98/09.

German artillery in 1914 was organized into field artillery and foot artillery branches. The former consisted of the light field guns and howitzers just described, which were organic to infantry and cavalry divisions. The latter designation applied to heavier artillery which normally came under corps or army command.

This foot artillery consisted of about 25% guns and 75% howitzers. These ranged in calibre from 9 cm to 42 cm. The most common calibres were 10 cm, 13 cm and 15 cm. About 5000 of the howitzers were of 15 cm calibre.

In their overseas colonies, the Germans used the latest guns available, as well as obsolete guns which could not be replaced because of the distance from the Fatherland. Of particular interest are the naval guns which were used in the East African campaign. Never intended for land service, the use of these guns typifies the energy and ingenuity of the Germans.

Towards the end of the 19th Century, Krupp produced several 6 cm and 7 cm mountain-guns, although mountain artillery was not part of the German army. Ehrhardt was also active in this field, and his mountain gun illustrates design improvements, notably in its recoil system, which put it ahead of all others when it appeared in 1904.

The guns to be described are listed below. All can be seen in South or South West Africa to-day:

3,7 cm AUTOMATIC MACHINE GUN (POM-POM). A reminder of the South African War, 1899-1902, and used in German West.
7 cm MOUNTAIN GUN MODEL 98. An early version on a rigid carriage.
7,5 cm MOUNTAIN GUN MODEL 08. Probably the first gun with a variable recoil system.
8 cm LIGHT FIELD GUN MODEL C/73. The standard horse artillery gun from 1873 to 1888.
9 cm FIELD GUN MODEL C/73/88. The equipment of both horse and field artillery from 1888. (Note: The identification of this gun is uncertain.)
7,7 cm FIELD GUN MODEL 96. The forerunner of the standard 1914 field gun.
7,7 cm FIELD GUN MODEl. 96 n.A. The standard equipment in 1914.
7,7 cm FIELD GUN MODEL 16. An improved field gun introduced in 1916.
7,5 cm FIELD GUN MODEL 06/12. Made by Krupp for the Italian Army.
10,5 cm LIGHT FIELD HOWITZER MODEL 98. The first light field howitzer, obsolete in 1914.
10,5 cm LIGHT FIELD HOWITZER MODEL 98/09. The standard equipment in 1914.
15 cm HEAVY FIELD HOWITZER MODEL 93. Used by Reserve Artillery units only in 1914.
15 em HEAVY FIELD HOWITZER MODEL 02. The standard equipment in 1914.
8,8 cm NAVAL GUN. Mounted on a temporary carriage, and used in German East.
10,5 cm NAVAL GUN. The gun of the light Cruiser Konigsberg.
By the way, it was German South-West Africa, not South-East.
You mighjt like to search through the Jounal's index - I have included a link to the relevant search that I've done to find the artillery stuff.

Tony



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General

Status: Offline
Posts: 359
Date:
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Phil,
Here is a list of artillery from an article in the South African Military History Society's Journal:
GERMAN GUNS OF WORLD WAR I IN SOUTH AFRICA

Major Darrell D. Hall
Guns in South Africa, 1899-1902 and Field Artillery of the British Army, 1860-1960, by the same author, appeared in this Journal, volume 2, numbers 1 to 6.

There are many German guns of World War I in the museums, and beside the war memorials, of South and South West Africa. Not only do they represent many of the types encountered by South African troops during that war; they also illustrate design developments in artillery at the end of the 19th Century, and early 20th Century.

The Germans introduced rifled breech-loading artillery in the l860s. After the Franco-Prussian War came Material C/73. This was in two versions the light 7,85 cm equipment for horse artillery, and the heavy 8,8 cm equipment for field artillery. These were normally described as 8 cm and 9 cm respectively.

Having two separate guns for horse and field artillery caused problems in the field, especially in connection with ammunition supply. When, in 1888, improvements in material made a lighter gun possible, the larger 9 cm calibre was adopted for both horse and field; this was the C/73/88. Then came the C/73/91 the same gun but with an improved barrel of nickel steel.

This was followed by the 7,7 cm C/96. The C prefix was not always used; this and later guns becoming Model 96 etc. This gun incorporated several improvements, notably in the breech mechanism, and a traversing system was included for the first time.

At about this time, a light field howitzer, the 10,5 cm Model 98, was adopted. The Germans had not been keen to introduce a new type of equipment, hoping that they would be able to get by on field guns alone. Developments in other European armies and unsuccessful experiments with field artillery ammunition forced them to take this step.

In the early years of the 20th Century, the Germans discovered that their two major rivals, Britain and France, had left them behind in gun design. France had developed a superior field gun. But it must have been infuriating for the Germans to discover that Britain had bought a large number of guns from Ehrhardt, a German manufacturer, as a stopgap pending the production of their new 13 and 18 pounder guns. The Ehrhardt gun, with its long recoil, was better than the gun in use with the German army at the time the 7,7 cm C/96. This gun was mounted on a rigid carriage and had a very rudimentary recoil system.

The Germans, therefore, rapidly updated their field artillery and produced the new 7,7 cm Field Gun Model 96 n.A. (neuer Art new pattern). The light field howitzer, the 10,5 cm Model 98, was also on a rigid carriage, so this was improved too, and a recoil system incorporated. It became the Model 98/09.

German artillery in 1914 was organized into field artillery and foot artillery branches. The former consisted of the light field guns and howitzers just described, which were organic to infantry and cavalry divisions. The latter designation applied to heavier artillery which normally came under corps or army command.

This foot artillery consisted of about 25% guns and 75% howitzers. These ranged in calibre from 9 cm to 42 cm. The most common calibres were 10 cm, 13 cm and 15 cm. About 5000 of the howitzers were of 15 cm calibre.

In their overseas colonies, the Germans used the latest guns available, as well as obsolete guns which could not be replaced because of the distance from the Fatherland. Of particular interest are the naval guns which were used in the East African campaign. Never intended for land service, the use of these guns typifies the energy and ingenuity of the Germans.

Towards the end of the 19th Century, Krupp produced several 6 cm and 7 cm mountain-guns, although mountain artillery was not part of the German army. Ehrhardt was also active in this field, and his mountain gun illustrates design improvements, notably in its recoil system, which put it ahead of all others when it appeared in 1904.

The guns to be described are listed below. All can be seen in South or South West Africa to-day:

3,7 cm AUTOMATIC MACHINE GUN (POM-POM). A reminder of the South African War, 1899-1902, and used in German West.
7 cm MOUNTAIN GUN MODEL 98. An early version on a rigid carriage.
7,5 cm MOUNTAIN GUN MODEL 08. Probably the first gun with a variable recoil system.
8 cm LIGHT FIELD GUN MODEL C/73. The standard horse artillery gun from 1873 to 1888.
9 cm FIELD GUN MODEL C/73/88. The equipment of both horse and field artillery from 1888. (Note: The identification of this gun is uncertain.)
7,7 cm FIELD GUN MODEL 96. The forerunner of the standard 1914 field gun.
7,7 cm FIELD GUN MODEl. 96 n.A. The standard equipment in 1914.
7,7 cm FIELD GUN MODEL 16. An improved field gun introduced in 1916.
7,5 cm FIELD GUN MODEL 06/12. Made by Krupp for the Italian Army.
10,5 cm LIGHT FIELD HOWITZER MODEL 98. The first light field howitzer, obsolete in 1914.
10,5 cm LIGHT FIELD HOWITZER MODEL 98/09. The standard equipment in 1914.
15 cm HEAVY FIELD HOWITZER MODEL 93. Used by Reserve Artillery units only in 1914.
15 em HEAVY FIELD HOWITZER MODEL 02. The standard equipment in 1914.
8,8 cm NAVAL GUN. Mounted on a temporary carriage, and used in German East.
10,5 cm NAVAL GUN. The gun of the light Cruiser Konigsberg.
By the way, it was German South-West Africa, not South-East.
You mighjt like to search through the Journal's index - I have included a link to the relevant search that I've done to find the artillery stuff: http://www.rapidttp.co.za/search.milhist?query=German+South+West+Africa&submit=Search!&metaname=swishdefault&sort=swishrank&DateRanges_date_option=All&DateRanges_start_mon=9&DateRanges_start_day=9&DateRanges_start_year=2013&DateRanges_end_mon=9&DateRanges_end_day=9&DateRanges_end_year=2013

Tony



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Major

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On the Axis History forum they have a section on German colonies that does have a listing of what German artillery was used in WW I there.

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Military Operations East Africa Volume I is online at hathitrust.org this deals with the August 1914-September 1916 period Volume II was never published see the Great war forums sub-Saharan Africa section

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